Your Vehicle: 2001 Ford Escort ZX2 L4-2.0L DOHC VIN 3
 
Vehicle » Powertrain Management » Description and Operation » Evaporative Emission (EVAP) Leak Check Monitor  
 
 
  Evaporative Emission (EVAP) Leak Check Monitor  
 

Evaporative Emission (EVAP) Leak Check Monitor
  

The Evaporative Emission (EVAP) Leak Check Monitor is an on-board strategy designed to detect a leak from a hole (opening) equal to or greater than 1.016 mm (0.040 inch) in the Enhanced EVAP system. The proper function of the individual components of the Enhanced EVAP system as well as its ability to flow fuel vapor to the engine is also examined. The EVAP Leak Check Monitor relies on the individual components of the Enhanced EVAP system to apply vacuum to the fuel tank and then seal the entire Enhanced EVAP system from atmosphere. The fuel tank pressure is then monitored to determine the total vacuum lost (bleed-up) for a calibrated period of time. Inputs from the Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) or Cylinder Head Temperature (CHT) sensor, Intake Air Temperature (IAT) sensor, Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor, vehicle speed, Fuel Level Input (FLI) and Fuel Tank Pressure (FTP) sensor are required to enable the EVAP Leak Check Monitor.

NOTE: During the EVAP Leak Check Monitor Repair Verification Drive Cycle a Powertrain Control Module (PCM) reset will bypass the minimum soak time required to complete the monitor. The EVAP Leak Check Monitor will not run if the key is turned off after a PCM reset. The EVAP Leak Check Monitor will not run if a MAF sensor failure is indicated. The EVAP Leak Check Monitor will not initiate until the Heated Oxygen Sensor (HO2S) Monitor has completed.

The EVAP Leak Check Monitor is executed by the individual components of the Enhanced EVAP system as follows:

  1. The function of the EVAP canister purge valve is to create a vacuum on the fuel tank. A minimum duty cycle on the EVAP canister purge valve (75%) must be met before the EVAP Leak Check Monitor can begin.
  2. The Canister Vent (CV) solenoid will close (100% duty cycle) with the EVAP canister purge valve at its minimum duty cycle to seal the Enhanced EVAP system from atmosphere and obtain a target vacuum on the fuel tank.
  3. The Fuel Tank Pressure (FTP) sensor will be used by the EVAP Leak Check Monitor to determine if the target vacuum on the fuel tank is being reached to perform the leak check. Some vehicle applications with the EVAP Leak Check Monitor use a remote in-line FTP sensor. Once the target vacuum on the fuel tank is achieved, the change in fuel tank vacuum for a calibrated period of time will determine if a leak exists.
  4. If the initial target vacuum cannot be reached, Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) P0455 (gross leak detected) will be set. The EVAP Leak Check Monitor will abort and not continue with the leak check portion of the test.

For some vehicle applications: If the initial target vacuum cannot be reached after a refueling event and the purge vapor flow is excessive, DTC P0457 (fuel cap off) is set. If the initial target vacuum cannot be reached and the purge flow is too small, DTC P1443 (no purge flow condition) is set.

If the initial target vacuum is exceeded, a system flow fault exists and DTC P1450 (unable to bleed-up fuel tank vacuum) is set. The EVAP Leak Check Monitor will abort and not continue with the leak check portion of the test.

If the target vacuum is obtained on the fuel tank, the change in the fuel tank vacuum (bleed-up) will be calculated for a calibrated period of time. The calculated change in fuel tank vacuum will be compared to a calibrated threshold for a leak from a hole (opening) of 1.016 mm (0.040 inch) in the Enhanced EVAP system. If the calculated bleed-up is less than the calibrated threshold, the Enhanced EVAP system passes. If the calibrated bleed-up exceeds the calibrated threshold, the test will abort and rerun the test up to three times.

If the bleed-up threshold is still being exceeded after three tests, a vapor generation check must be performed before DTC P0442 (small leak detected) will be set. This is accomplished by returning the Enhanced EVAP system to atmospheric pressure by closing the EVAP canister purge valve and opening the CV solenoid. Once the FTP sensor observes the fuel tank is at atmospheric pressure, the CV solenoid closes and seals the Enhanced EVAP system.

The fuel tank pressure build-up for a calibrated period of time will be compared to a calibrated threshold for pressure build-up due to vapor generation.

If the fuel tank pressure build-up exceeds the threshold, the leak test results are invalid due to vapor generation. The EVAP Leak Check Monitor will attempt to retest again.

If the fuel tank pressure build-up does not exceed the threshold, the leak test results are valid and DTC P0442 will be set.

  1. If the 1.016 mm (0.40 inch) test passes, the test time is extended to allow the 0.508 mm (0.020 inch) test to run.

The calculated change in fuel vacuum over the extended time is compared to a calibrated threshold for a leak from a 0.508 mm (0.020 inch) hole (opening).

If the calculated bleed-up exceeds the calibrated threshold, vapor generation is run. If vapor generation passes (no vapor generation), an internal flag is set in the PCM to run a 0.508 mm (0.020 inch) test at idle (vehicle stopped).

On the next start following a long engine off period, the Enhanced EVAP system will be sealed and evacuated for the first 10 minutes of operation.

If the appropriate conditions are met, a 0.508 mm (0.020 inch) leak check is conducted at idle. If the test at idles fails, a DTC P0456 will be set. There is no vapor generation test with the idle test.

NOTE: If the vapor generation is high on some vehicle Enhanced EVAP Systems, where the monitor does not pass, the result is treated as a no test. Thereby, the test is complete for the day.

  1. The Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) is activated for DTCs P0442, P0455, P0456, P0457, P1443 and P1450 (or P446) after two occurrences of the same fault. The MIL can also be activated for any Enhanced EVAP system component DTCs in the same manner. The Enhanced EVAP system component DTCs P0443, P0452, P0453 and P1451 are tested as part of the Comprehensive Component Monitor (CCM).