Your Vehicle: 2001 Ford Escort ZX2 L4-2.0L DOHC VIN 3
 
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  Ignition Systems  
 

Overview
The Ignition System is designed to ignite the compressed air/fuel mixture in an internal combustion engine by a high voltage spark from an ignition coil. The ignition system also provides engine timing information to the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) for proper vehicle operation and misfire detection.

Ignition Systems - Integrated Electronic Ignition
  

Six Cylinder Integrated Electronic (EI) Ignition Waveforms
  

Integrated Electronic Ignition System
The Integrated Electronic Ignition (EI) system consists of a Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensor, coil pack(s), connecting wiring, and Powertrain Control Module (PCM) . The Coil On Plug (COP) Integrated EI System uses a separate coil per spark plug and each coil is mounted directly onto the plug. The COP Integrated EI System eliminates the need for spark plug wires but does require input from the Camshaft Position (CMP) sensor. Operation of the components are as follows (Figure 52):

  1. The Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensor is used to indicate crankshaft position and speed by sensing a missing tooth on a pulse wheel mounted to the crankshaft. The Camshaft Position (CMP) sensor is used by the Coil On Plug (COP) Integrated EI System to identify top dead center of compression of cylinder 1 to synchronize the firing of the individual coils.

NOTE: Electronic Ignition engine timing is entirely controlled by the PCM. Electronic Ignition engine timing is NOT adjustable. Do not attempt to check base timing. You will receive false readings.

  1. The Powertrain Control Module (PCM) uses the Crankshaft Position (CKP) signal to calculate a spark target and then fires the coil pack(s) to that target shown (Figure 53). The PCM uses the CMP sensor not shown in Figure 53 on COP Integrated EI Systems to identify top dead center of compression of cylinder 1 to synchronize the firing of the individual coils.
  2. The coils and coil packs receive their signal from the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) to fire at a calculated spark target. Each coil within the pack fires two spark plugs at the same time. The plugs are paired so that as one fires during the compression stroke the other fires during the exhaust stroke. The next time the coil is fired the situation is reversed. The Coil On Plug (COP) system fires only one spark plug per coil and only on the compression stroke.

The Powertrain Control Module (PCM) acts as an electronic switch to ground in the coil primary circuit. When the switch is closed, battery positive voltage (B+) applied to the coil primary circuit builds a magnetic field around the primary coil. When the switch opens, the power is interrupted and the primary field collapses inducing the high voltage in the secondary coil windings and the spark plug is fired. A kickback voltage spike occurs when the primary field collapses. The PCM uses this voltage spike to generate an Ignition Diagnostic Monitor (IDM) signal. IDM communicates information by pulsewidth modulation in the PCM.

  1. The Powertrain Control Module (PCM) processes the Crankshaft Position (CKP) signal and uses it to drive the tachometer as the Clean Tach Out (CTO) signal.

HARDWARE

Typical Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor
  

Crankshaft Position Sensor
The Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensor (Figure 54) is a magnetic transducer mounted on the engine block adjacent to a pulse wheel located on the crankshaft. By monitoring the crankshaft mounted pulse wheel, the Crankshaft Position (CKP) is the primary sensor for ignition information to the PCM. The pulse wheel has a total of 35 teeth spaced 10 degrees apart with one empty space for a missing tooth. The 6.8L ten cylinder pulse wheel has 39 teeth spaced 9 degrees apart and one 9 degree empty space for a missing tooth. By monitoring the pulse wheel, the CKP sensor signal indicates crankshaft position and speed information to the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) . By monitoring the missing tooth, the CKP sensor is also able to identify piston travel in order to synchronize the ignition system and provide a way of tracking the angular position of the crankshaft relative to a fixed reference (Figure 51) for the CKP sensor configuration. The PCM also uses the CKP signal to determine if a misfire has occurred by measuring rapid decelerations between teeth.

Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor
  

Camshaft Position Sensor
The camshaft position sensor (Figure 55) used by COP Integrated EI system is a magnetic transducer mounted on the engine front cover adjacent to the camshaft. By monitoring a target on the camshaft sprocket, the CMP sensor identifies cylinder one to the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) . The COP Integrated EI system uses this information to synchronize the firing of the individual coils.

Horizontal Connector Six Tower Coil Pack
  

Series 5 Six Tower Coil Pack
  

Four - Tower Coil Packs
  

Series 5 Four Tower Coil Pack
  

Coil Pack
Coil packs come in four tower, Series 5 four tower, six-tower horizontal connector and Series 5 Six tower models. Two adjacent coil towers share a common coil and are called a matched pair. For six-tower coil pack (six cylinder) applications the matched pairs are 1 and 5, 2 and 6, and 3 and 4 (Figure 56) and (Figure 57). For four-tower coil pack (four cylinder) applications the matched pairs are 1 and 4, and 2 and 3 (Figure 58) and (Figure 59).

When the coil is fired by the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) , spark is delivered through the matched pair towers to their respective spark plugs. The spark plugs are fired simultaneously and are paired so that as one fires on the compression stroke, the other spark plug fires on the exhaust stroke. The next time the coil is fired the situation is reversed. The next pair of spark plugs fire according to the engine firing order.

Coil On Plug
  

Coil On Plug
The Coil On Plug (COP) (Figure 60) ignition operates similar to standard coil pack ignition except each plug has one coil per plug. COP has three different modes of operation: engine crank, engine running, and CMP Failure Mode Effects Management (FMEM) .

Engine Crank/Engine Running
During engine crank the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) will fire two spark plugs simultaneously. Of the two plugs simultaneously fired one will be under compression the other will be on the exhaust stroke. Both plugs will fire until camshaft position is identified by a successful camshaft position sensor signal. Once camshaft position is identified only the cylinder under compression will be fired.

CMP FMEM
During CMP FMEM the Coil On Plug (COP) ignition works the same as during engine crank. This allows the engine to operate without the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) knowing if cylinder one is under compression or exhaust.