Your Vehicle: 2001 Ford Escort ZX2 L4-2.0L DOHC VIN 3
 
Vehicle » Powertrain Management » Description and Operation » Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems  
 
 
  Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems  
 

Overview
The Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system controls the Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) emissions. Small amounts of exhaust gases are recirculated back into the combustion chamber to mix with the air/fuel charge. The combustion chamber temperature is reduced, lowering NOx emissions.

Differential Pressure Feedback EGR System Operation
  

Differential Pressure Feedback EGR System
The Differential Pressure Feedback EGR system consists of a differential pressure feedback EGR sensor, EGR vacuum regulator solenoid, EGR valve, orifice tube assembly, Powertrain Control Module (PCM) and connecting wires and vacuum hoses. Operation of the system is as follows (Figure 85):

  1. The Differential Pressure Feedback EGR system receives signals from the Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) sensor, Intake Air Temperature (IAT) sensor, Throttle Position (TP) sensor, Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor and Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensor to provide information on engine operating conditions to the PCM. The engine must be warm, stable and running at a moderate load and rpm before the EGR system is activated. The PCM deactivates EGR during idle, extended wide open throttle or whenever a failure is detected in an EGR component or EGR required input.
  2. The PCM calculates the desired amount of EGR flow for a given engine condition. It then determines the desired pressure drop across the metering orifice required to achieve that flow and outputs the corresponding signal to the EGR vacuum regulator solenoid.
  3. The EGR vacuum regulator solenoid receives a variable duty cycle signal (0 to 100%) . The higher the duty cycle the more vacuum the solenoid diverts to the EGR valve.
  4. The increase in vacuum acting on the EGR valve diaphragm overcomes the valve spring and begins to lift the EGR valve pintle off its seat, causing exhaust gas to flow into the intake manifold.
  5. Exhaust gas flowing through the EGR valve must first pass through the EGR metering orifice. With one side of the orifice exposed to exhaust backpressure and the other to the intake manifold, a pressure drop is created across the orifice whenever there is EGR flow. When the EGR valve closes, there is no longer flow across the metering orifice and pressure on both sides of the orifice is the same. The PCM constantly targets a desired pressure drop across the metering orifice to achieve the desired EGR flow.
  6. The differential pressure feedback EGR sensor measures the actual pressure drop across the metering orifice and relays a proportional voltage signal (0 to 5 volts) to the PCM. The PCM uses this feedback signal to correct for any errors in achieving the desired EGR flow.

Hardware

Differential Pressure Feedback EGR Sensor
  

Differential Pressure Feedback EGR Sensor
The differential pressure feedback EGR sensor (Figure 86) is a ceramic, capacitive-type pressure transducer that monitors the differential pressure across a metering orifice located in the orifice tube assembly. The differential pressure feedback sensor receives this signal through two hoses referred to as the downstream pressure hose (REF SIGNAL) and upstream pressure hose (HI SIGNAL). The HI and REF hose connections are marked on the aluminum differential pressure feedback EGR sensor housing for identification (note that the HI signal uses a larger diameter hose). The differential pressure feedback EGR sensor outputs a voltage proportional to the pressure drop across the metering orifice and supplies it to the PCM as EGR flow rate feedback.

Tube Mounted Differential Pressure Feedback EGR Sensor
  

Tube Mounted Differential Pressure Feedback EGR Sensor
The tube mounted differential pressure feedback EGR sensor (Figure 87) is identical in operation as the larger metal or plastic DPFE sensors and uses a 1.0 volt offset. The HI and REF hose connections are marked on the underside of the sensor.

EGR Vacuum Regulator Solenoid
  

Test Graph
  

EGR Vacuum Regulator Solenoid Data Chart
  

EGR Vacuum Regulator Solenoid
The EGR vacuum regulator solenoid (Figure 88) is an electromagnetic device which is used to regulate the vacuum supply to the EGR valve. The solenoid contains a coil which magnetically controls the position of a disc to regulate the vacuum. As the duty cycle to the coil increases, the vacuum signal passed through the solenoid to the EGR valve also increases. Vacuum not directed to the EGR valve is vented through the solenoid vent to atmosphere. Note that at 0% duty cycle (no electrical signal applied), the EGR vacuum regulator solenoid allows some vacuum to pass, but not enough to open the EGR valve.

EGR Valve
  

Test Graph
  

The EGR valve (Figure 89) in the Differential Pressure Feedback EGR system is a conventional, vacuum-actuated EGR valve. The valve increases or decreases the flow of exhaust gas recirculation. As vacuum applied to the EGR valve diaphragm overcomes the spring force, the valve begins to open. As the vacuum signal weakens, at 5.4 kPa (1.6 in-Hg) or less, the spring force closes the valve. The EGR valve is fully open at about 15 kPa (4.5 in-Hg) .

Since EGR flow requirement varies greatly, providing service specifications on flow rate is impractical. The on-board diagnostic system monitors the EGR valve function and triggers a Diagnostic Trouble Code if the test criteria is not met. The EGR valve flow rate is not measured directly as part of the field diagnostic procedures.

Orifice Tube Assembly
  

Orifice Tube Assembly
The orifice tube assembly (Figure 90) is a section of tubing connecting the exhaust system to the intake manifold. The assembly provides the flow path for the EGR to the intake manifold and also contains the metering orifice and two pressure pick-up tubes. The internal metering orifice creates a measurable pressure drop across it as the EGR valve opens and closes. This pressure differential across the orifice is picked up by the differential pressure feedback EGR sensor which provides feedback to the PCM.

Electric Motor EGR System (EEGR)
Highlights of the Electric System

  • EEGR valve is activated by an electric stepper motor not a vacuum motor (Rear of engine block).
  • No vacuum diaphragm is used.
  • No DPFE sensor is used.
  • No Orifice Tube/Assembly is used.
  • No EGR vacuum regulator solenoid is used.
  • A new Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor is used (called Thermal Manifold Absolute Pressure (TCS) but the temperature function is not used at this time) (located on top of the valve cover).
  • Engine coolant is routed through the assembly extending durability of the electric motor.

Electric EGR System
  

Overview
The electric EGR system uses exhaust gas recirculation to control the Oxides Of Nitrogen (NOx) emissions just like vacuum operated systems. The only difference is the way in which the exhaust gas is controlled.

The Electric EGR system consists of an electric motor/EGR valve integrated assembly, a PCM, and connecting wiring. Additionally a MAP sensor is also required. Operation of the system is as follows (Figure 91):

  1. The Electric Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EEGR) system receives signals from the Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) or Cylinder Head Temperature (CHT) sensor, Throttle Position (TP) sensor, Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor, Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensor and the Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor to provide information on engine operating conditions to the PCM. The engine must be warm, stable and running at a moderate load and rpm before the EEGR system is activated. The PCM will deactivate EGR during idle, extended wide open throttle or whenever a failure is detected in an EEGR component or EGR required input.
  2. The PCM calculates the desired amount of EGR for a given set of engine operating conditions.
  3. The PCM in turn will output signals to the EEGR motor to move (advance or retract) a certain number of discrete steps. The electric stepper motor will directly actuate the EGR valve, independent of engine vacuum. The EGR valve is commanded from 0 to 52 discrete increments or "steps" to get the EGR valve from a fully closed to full or partially open position. The position of the EGR valve determines the EGR flow.
  4. A MAP sensor is used to measure variations in manifold pressure as exhaust gas recirculation is introduced into the intake manifold. Variations in EGR being used will correlate to the MAP signal (increasing EGR will increase manifold pressure values).
HARDWARE

Electric EGR Motor/Valve Assembly
  

Electric EGR
  

The electric EGR valve (Figure 92) and (Figure 93) is a water cooled motor/valve assembly. The motor is commanded to move in 52 discrete steps as it acts directly on the the EGR valve. The position of the valve determines the rate of EGR. The built in spring works to close the valve (against the motor opening force).